J. Gresham Machen (114): (1881-1937) Argued that modern liberalism "not only is a different religion from Christianity but belongs in a totally different class of religions."
Manichaeism (3): Dualistic religion that prescribed ways of combating the material world to approach the spiritual.
Manichees (83) : Religion of Persian origin, founded by Manes (215-275). Dualistic religion based on concept of a primal conflict between light and darkness. Rejected the Old Testament. William T. Manning (114): Episcopal bishop who declared in 1924, "There is nothing in the Christian faith which conflicts with the theory of evolution."
Manual of Christian Doctrine (96) : Johannes Gropper, about 1544. A balanced statement of Catholic teaching that was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books.
Marcian (82) : Became emperor in 450. Called Council of Chalcedon which re-affirmed Pope Leo and our current orthodoxy.
Marian Martyrs (94) : English killed in the counter-reformation under Mary Tudor. Many recorded in "The Book of Martyrs" by John Foxe. Included Lady Jane Grey, Cranmer, John Rogers, and Roland Taylor.
Jacques Maritain (111): (1882-1972) Roman Catholic theologian who called for a more balanced appreciation of tradition, to overcome the contradictions of the present.
Charles Martel (85) : (688-741) First of the Carolingians. Defeated the Moslems at the battle of Tours in 732. Vindicated the cross and became the savior of Western Christendom.
Justin Martyr (80) : First major theologian to build a bridge between Christian and Hellenistic thought. "The Logos is Christ."
Mashal (37): A saying in which wit or insight is expressed. Prov 11:22. (59): Being similar or like. A parable, proverb, byword.
Masoretes (1): Inventors of pointing. They were active around 500 AD, and to help preserve the proper meaning of the ancient Hebrew texts, they invented pointing for use in copying the Old Testament.
Shailer Mathews (114): (1863-1941) Baptist theologian who advocated a social gospel. Faith should use the methods of science, history, and sociology to apply an evangelical Christianity to the needs of the people. F. D. Maurice (114): (1805-1872) Anglican modernist who emphasized the need for the church to adapt in doctrine, liturgy, and other areas to modern life.
Sallie McFague (122): Contemporary feminist theologian who has attacked the problem of inclusive language by focusing on the metaphorical use of language.
Medieval civilization (85) : European civilization in the Middle Ages, characterized by the conscious use and synthesis of Christian forms.
Medieval synthesis (85) : The combination of the Church and State into a unified system. The authorities are King and Priest. The jurisdictions are human and divine law.
Melchizedek (36): Mysterious King/Priest in Genesis who offered bread and wine for a blessing on Abram, and received Abram's tithe.
Mercy Seat (64):(kaporeth) a place of meeting between God and sinners in the temple.
Thomas Merton (125): Contemporary Trappist monk who explored the use of Eastern Mysticism as a vehicle to develop and deepen Christian spirituality.
Messiah (1): Anointed one - to bring about God's kingdom on Earth.
Metanoia (47): Greek for "a change of heart" or "changing one's mind". Usually translated into English as "repentance".
Middle Ages (85) : Generally the period of time from Augustine to Gutenberg (350-1450).
Midrashim (41): (Hebrew for investigations) Rabbinic discussions on scripture. Method of interpreting the Pentateuch to make clear points of law.
Miracle Stories (45): Stories in which a miracle is the focus, like the feeding of the 5000.
Healing Miracles (60): Miracles associated with healing the sick, casting out demons, done in response to human need.
Nature Miracles (60): Miracles not associated with people that seem to violate natural law.
Mission de France (123): New liturgical movement in France beginning in 1941.
Modernism (114): A term denoting those who sought to reconcile church dogma with the discoveries of science and critical analysis.
Jurgen Moltmann (120): Modern theologian. Wrote "The Crucified God: The Cross of Christ as the Foundation and Criticism of Christian THeology." Reckons that the agony of the cross discloses the connection between God's suffering and our own. Approaches patripassionism in his approach.
Monotheism (9): Belief that there is one and only one God, for everyone, everywhere, forever. Dwight L. Moody (127): (1837-1899) Congregationalist evangelist. Began a career as a touring evangelist, with an associate David Sankey who popularized "gospel hymns". He developed the technique of using "decision cards" at his revival meetings, so that those who had made a decision for Christ could be followed up in the pastoral care of their local church.
Moral Autonomy (4): Attempting to decide right and wrong for oneself without reference or deference to God. In effect, attempting to take the place of God.
Morality (131): Conformity to the rules of right conduct. Freedom from sin or sinful behavior. Actions based on ethical principles.
Moravian pietism (100): A form of pietism within the Lutheran community with a zeal for missions and desire for personal experience of God's presence.
Thomas More (93) : (1478-1535) Author of Utopia, devout humanist scholar. Replaced Wolsey as Lord Chancellor under Henry VIII. He refused to place allegiance to Henry above that of the Pope, and was beheaded for high treason.
Mysterium Tremendum et Fascinans (10): Fear and awe. A mystery which both attracts with its fascination and terrifies with its tremendous power. Due to Rudolf Otto in "The Idea of the Holy". Examples are the images of fire and smoke associated with God, and Jacobs dream (Gen 28:17).
Mystery Religions (40): Secret cults concerned with deification and redemption.
Mystical theology (106): Theology which points beyond itself to the greater depth and meaning of the reality of God. Theology that points us towards a vision of God that transcends the theology itself.
Myth (2): A holy mystery story whose point is to say something deep and meaningful about God. Myths are the deepest expressions of truth that a culture can speak."Doctrines which are extracted from the myth are less true than the myth itself. The ideas are too large and too all-embracing for the finite mind to absorb them.That is why the divine providence revealed himself in story" (paraphrased from J.R.R.Tolkein)